"In its most general sense, a fair use is any copying of copyrighted material done for a limited and “transformative” purpose, such as to comment upon, criticize, or parody a copyrighted work. Such uses can be done without permission from the copyright owner.Apr 4, 2013.............."

From Stanford University


What Is Fair Use?

In its most general sense, a fair use is any copying of copyrighted material done for a limited and “transformative” purpose, such as to comment upon, criticize, or parody a copyrighted work. Such uses can be done without permission from the copyright owner. In other words, fair use is a defense against a claim of copyright infringement. If your use qualifies as a fair use, then it would not be considered an illegal infringement.

So what is a “transformative” use? If this definition seems ambiguous or vague, be aware that millions of dollars in legal fees have been spent attempting to define what qualifies as a fair use. There are no hard-and-fast rules, only general rules and varied court decisions, because the judges and lawmakers who created the fair use exception did not want to limit its definition. Like free speech, they wanted it to have an expansive meaning that could be open to interpretation.

Most fair use analysis falls into two categories: (1) commentary and criticism, or (2) parody.

Commentary and Criticism

If you are commenting upon or critiquing a copyrighted work — for instance, writing a book review — fair use principles allow you to reproduce some of the work to achieve your purposes. Some examples of commentary and criticism include:

  • quoting a few lines from a Bob Dylan song in a music review
  • summarizing and quoting from a medical article on prostate cancer in a news report
  • copying a few paragraphs from a news article for use by a teacher or student in a lesson, or
  • copying a portion of a Sports Illustrated magazine article for use in a related court case.

The underlying rationale of this rule is that the public reaps benefits from your review, which is enhanced by including some of the copyrighted material. Additional examples of commentary or criticism are provided in the examples of fair use cases.


A parody is a work that ridicules another, usually well-known work, by imitating it in a comic way. Judges understand that, by its nature, parody demands some taking from the original work being parodied. Unlike other forms of fair use, a fairly extensive use of the original work is permitted in a parody in order to “conjure up” the original.

Legal Aspects of File Sharing





U.S. Code: Title 17 -

FROM https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/17


Copyright Law of the United States of America

and Related Laws Contained in Title 17 of the United States Code

FROM > http://copyright.gov/title17/92chap1.html


United States Copyright Office Website

Fair Use > http://www.copyright.gov/fair-use/


My Private Disclaimer


The data and research information is for educational purposes and for the purpose of provoking thought or consideration for a new direction. The teachings contained herein are just that, and that any similarities from information produced here with that of another site could be construed as coincidence.


Much of the material on this site is for educational purposes and may be similar in nature or in whole to other site's information. Material produced here has been written so that the reader can review another idea in commentary and in evidence could be seen as criticism as it may differ from another's similar view of content or subject. Thereby, while seeming to appear as "copyrighted" the reader may also see "in different" the conclusion, plot, or subject matter to be in fact different in general and should be discerned as such.


Nevertheless, no profit nor any notoriety (self-promotion) is requested for this site or it constituents on any material contained herein. All material contained in this site is thereby free from copyright restrictions (by this grantor) and if the reader agrees for to copy any or all material, it is therefore allowed without penalty providing it is used in accordance with "fair use" laws and or regulations for the sole purpose of conveying an idea, response, or to educate and edify in a respectable manor. -Ivory Towers


Further Reading > https://www.quora.com/Why-dont-some-writers-understand-the-difference-between-plagiarism-and-copyright-How-can-a-person-create-copyrighted-content-if-he-has-no-knowledge-and-does-not-have-research-time




The material herein (if used from other sources) is reproduced in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.